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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word format.
  • Where available, URLs or dois for the references have been provided.
  • The text is 1.5 spacing; uses a 12-point Times New Roman font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Types of articles

Full length articles report on complete, comprehensive pieces of original research, as well as reviews, strategies or innovative case studies in any field of work aligned with the scope of the journal. Full length articles include a maximum of 8 000 words and 60 references.

Short communications are concise reports on narrow investigations. These include new species descriptions. They have a maximum of 2 000 words and 30 references.

In the case of reviews, strategies and short communications, not all of the headings and subheadings specified below may be relevant. In such cases authors will need to use their discretion in selecting appropriate headings.


Manuscripts must be submitted as a MS Word document. Documents compiled in other software, including Google Documents, cannot be accepted.

Low resolution versions of figures and tables can be inserted into the document. High resolution of figures must, however, also be included separately, with each figure as a separate, appropriately labelled file (see details of requirements for figures below).

Please do not use hidden formatting, including character styles in the manuscript. Also avoid nested tables and text boxes. Many of these cause corruptions in the design software, and can usually be avoided if authors refrain from copying and pasting from various sources, including other MS Word documents.

  • Language: Manuscripts must be written in UK English. Avoid Americanisms (e.g. use ‘s’ and not ‘z’). Consult the Oxford English Dictionary when in doubt and remember to set your version of Microsoft Word to UK English.
  • Line numbers:Insert continuous line numbers.
  • Font type:Times New Roman
  • General font size:12pt 
  • Line spacing: 1.5
  • Headings:Ensure that formatting for headings is consistent in the manuscript.
  • First headings: normal, bold and 14pt
  • Second headings: normal, bold and 12pt
  • Third headings: normal, italics and 12pt
  • Fourth headings: normal, bold, running-in text and separated by a colon, and 12pt.

Scientific names: Names of genera and infrageneric taxa are italicised, with the author citation not italicised. Exceptions include specific cases in taxonomic treatments (see details of such manuscripts below); new taxa in the abstract; and in checklists where the position is reversed – correct names are not italicised and synonyms are italicised. Names above generic level are not italicised. The complete scientific name of a species as well as the author citation should be given at the first mention in the text. The generic names should be abbreviated to the initial thereafter, except where references to other genera with the same initial could cause confusion.

Authors of botanical names are abbreviated according to Authors of Plant Names (Brummitt & Powell 1992, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew).

In names covered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the date of publication should be separated from the authority by a comma (e.g. Anthomyza bellatrix Roháçek, 1984). When a species or subspecies is transferred to a genus other than that in which it was first classified, the original authority, including the date, is placed in parentheses.

Adjectives and nouns derived from genus names become Roman with a lower case initial (e.g. Felis→feline, Libellula→libellulids, Streptococcus→streptococcal infection).Those derived from higher taxonomic groups also begin with a lower case letter and are presented in Roman (e.g. Ostracoda→ostracods, Cactaceae→cacti).

A scientific name given at its first mention after a vernacular name should be separated from it by a comma if the two names are exact synonyms (e.g.…the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus,…), but not if the vernacular name may apply to more than one species (e.g. the starfish Asterina pectinifera, the medaka Oryzias latipes).

Abbreviations should be used sparingly but consistently. No full stops are placed after abbreviations ending with the last letter of the full word, after units of measure, after compass directions, after countries and after well-known institutions.

Figures and tables

The word ‘Figure’ should be written out in full and should begin with a capital F, in both the text and captions.

Figures (original or electronic submissions):

  • Figures should be planned to fit, after reduction, into a width of either 80, 118 or 165 mm, with a maximum vertical length of 230 mm. Allow space for the caption in the case of figures that will occupy a whole page.
  • Graphics (high resolution), i.e. drawings, graphs or photographs, should be submitted as separate files. Low resolution copies of the figures should be included in the manuscript for review purposes.
  • If extensive changes to image files are proposed by the editor, the author will be contacted and the specific image file will have to be re-submitted after the indicated corrections have been implemented.
  • Scale bars or scale lines should be used on figures where relevant.
  • Captions should not be added as part of the figure file. Number captions clearly and correctly and include either in the main text close to where the figure should be inserted or as a list of captions at the end of the text. Not in a separate document.
  • Authors wishing to use illustrations already published elsewhere must obtain written permission before submitting the manuscript and provide this to the editor at the time of submission, along with appropriate acknowledgements.
  • Do not resample low resolution images to a higher resolution.
  • Mosaics should be submitted as separate photographs as TIF/JPG files at 600 dpi or higher. A mockup of the layout should also be submitted. Final layout of the mosaic will be done by our graphics department. Do not number the original images, but do include a scale bar. Indicate the lettering on the mockup and not on the original photographs.

Manuscripts for which the figures, including line drawings, photographs, graphs and histograms, and maps, do not comply will be

  • rejected for design and layout, even though the paper was accepted for publication, until such time that the authors can provide suitable images. This can significantly delay publication.

Line drawings:

  • The original artwork should be in jet-black Indian ink, on fine art paper, 200 gsm. Lines should be clear enough to accommodate reduction. Do not use draughtman’s film.
  • Drawings in pencil will not be accepted.
  • Provide original drawings electronically as bitmap TIF files, 1200 dpi.
  • At the request of the author, the Graphic Design Section of SANBI will assist with the scanning of original material. Authors wishing to have the originals of figures returned must inform the editor in writing and mark each original ‘To be returned to author’.


  • Provide photographs electronically as either TIF or JPG files, 600 dpi or higher.

Graphs and histograms:

  • The typeface for all graphs and histograms is Arial.
  • Provide graphics originated in CorelDraw (version 16 or lower), as a .CDR file.
  • Graphs and histograms generated in MS Excel or MS Word, should be provided as is. File conversion into the correct format will be accommodated by SANBI Graphics.
  • Images generated in other programmes should be submitted as TIF or JPG files at a resolution of 600 dpi or as encapsulated postscript files (.EPS). If graphs and histograms are submitted in colour, please ensure that the shading used is easily discernible once the file is converted to grayscale.


It is strongly recommended that taxonomic articles include dot maps as figures to show the distribution of taxa. If maps will be reduced to column width (80 mm), the symbols and numbers used must be large enough to

  • accommodate the reduction. The maps should show: numbered grid lines of latitude and longitude; the provinces of South Africa; and a scale line. Maps of neighbouring countries should be treated in the same way, with bordering states clearly labelled. For orientation purposes, a small inset map should appear in a corner of the figure.
  • Submit maps electronically as either TIF or JPG files, 600 dpi or higher.
  • ArcView GIS maps are acceptable. The layout representing all the appropriate themes (including grid lines) should be submitted as an encapsulated postscript file (.EPS).
  • If maps are submitted in colour, please ensure that the shading used is easily discernible once the file converted to grayscale.


  • Tables should be drawn up in MS Word and not copied and pasted from other software such as MS Excel.
  • Avoid copying and pasting text into the table as this often result in nested tables that are problematic to format and edit. Type in all text from scratch.
  • Do not submit tables as text with separators such as tabs or commas, submit as MS Word standard tables.
  • Do not include text boxes in table cells, type text directly in the primary table cell.
  • Use Times New Roman 12pt if possible. However, should the width of the columns and the amount of text make this difficult, the size of the font may be reduced to no less than 9pt.
  • If possible, present tables in portrait format. However, if tables must be presented in landscape format, use section breaks before and after the tables to separate it from the main text.
  • Do not stretch the table to beyond the size of the paper on screen.
  • Use the background fill function to shade cells if necessary. Do not use text highlights.

Structure of your article

Page 1:

The format of the compulsory cover letter forms part of your submission and is on the first page of your manuscript and should always be presented in English. You should provide all of the following elements:

  • Article title: Provide a short title of 50 characters or less.
  • Full author details: Provide title(s), full name(s), position(s), affiliation(s) and contact details (postal address, email, telephone and cellular number) and ORCID number of each author.
  • Corresponding author: Identify to whom all correspondence should be addressed to.
  • Authors’ contributions: Briefly summarise the nature of the contribution made by each of the authors listed.
  • Summary: Lastly, include a list containing the number of words, pages, tables, figures and/or other supplementary material with the submission.

Page 2 and onwards:

Title: The article’s full title should contain a maximum of 95 characters (including spaces).

Abstract: The abstract, written in English, should be no longer than 250 words and must be written in the past tense. The abstract should give a succinct account of the background, objectives, methods, results and significance of the findings/conclusion

Do not cite references in the abstract and do not use abbreviations excessively in the abstract.

The following points serve as a guide for presenting your manuscript in a well-structure format:

Introduction: The introduction contains two subsections, namely the background section and the literature review.

  • Background: This section should be written from the point of view of the readers, including those without specialist knowledge in that area and must clearly state and illustrate the introduction to the research and its aims in the context of previous work bearing directly on the subject. The Background section to the article normally contains the following five elements:
  • Key focus: A thought-provoking introductory statement on the broad theme or topic of the research.
  • Context: Provide the context to the study, which can include the conceptual framework or explain the role of other relevant key variables in this study.
  • Trends: Cite the most important published studies previously conducted on this topic or that have any relevance to this study (provide a high-level synopsis of the research literature on this topic).
  • Objectives: Indicate the most important controversies, gaps and inconsistencies in the literature that will be addressed by this study. In view of the above trends, state the core research problem and specific objectives that will be addressed in this study.
  • Contribution to field: Explanation of the study’s academic (theoretical and methodological) or practical merit and its importance (provide the value-add or rationale for the study). 
  • Literature review: The literature review is the second subsection under the Introduction and provides a brief and concise overview of the literature under a separate second-level heading, e.g. literature review. A synthesis and critical evaluation of the literature (not a compilation of citations and references) should at least include or address the following elements (ensure these are in the literature review): 
  • Definitions of all key concepts.
  • A critical review and summary of previous research findings (theories, models, frameworks, etc.) on the topic.
  • A clear indication of the gap in the literature and for the need to address this void.
  • A clearly established link that exists between formulated objectives and theoretical support from the relevant literature.

Research method and design (first-level heading):

The methods should include:

  • Materials (second-level heading): Describe the type of organism/s or material/s involved in the study.
  • Study site (second-level heading): Describe the site and setting where your study was conducted.
  • Design (second-level heading): Describe your experimental design clearly. Note: Additional details can be placed in the online supplementary location.
  • Procedure or Methods (second-level heading): Describe the protocol for your study in sufficient detail (with a clear description of all interventions and comparisons) so that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.
  • Analysis (second-level heading): Describe how the data were summarised and analysed. Additional details can be placed with the online supplementary information. Do not include lists here as they will be published as supplementary material.

Ethical considerations (first level heading):

  • Ethical clearance (second-level heading): Articles based on the involvement of animals and/or humans must have been conducted in accordance with relevant national and international guidelines. Approval must have been obtained for all protocols from the author’s institutional or other relevant ethics committee and the institution’s name and any ethics certificate number/s should be provided at submission.
  • Risks or negative impacts associated with research and mitigation (second-level heading): This section should consider any risks or negative impacts to the subjects caused by the project (the subject may be a human individual or a population of plants or animals). What precautions were taken to minimise any negative impacts of the research on the subject/s?
  • Permitting (second-level heading): Projects that required permits for collection, transport or provision of material must provide all relevant permit details.
  • Recruitment and informed consent (second-level heading): In the case where human subjects were involved, how were subjects recruited? Was there any sense in subjects being obliged to participate or were volunteers recruited. Authors must include how informed consent was handled in the study.
  • Data protection (second-level heading): Authors must include, in detail, the way in which data protection was handled.

Results (first-level heading):

Results should be presented as follows:

  • Present the results of your experiment(s) or research data in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the questions / address the objectives, as stated in the introduction.
  • Present the body of the results section in text with the key findings that include references to each of the tables and figures. Report statistical test summaries (test name, p-value) parenthetically (that is, inserted as a parenthesis in brackets) together with the biological results they support. Use the SI unit.
  • All units should conform to theSI convention and be abbreviated accordingly. Metric units and their international symbols are used throughout, as is the decimal point (not the decimal comma).  

Discussion (first-level heading):

This section normally contains the following four elements. It is suggested that subheadings are used in this section:

  • Outline of the results (second-level heading): Restate the main objective of the study and reaffirm the importance of the study by restating its main contributions; summarise the results in relation to each stated research objective or research hypothesis; link the findings back to the literature and to the results reported by other researchers; provide explanations for unexpected results.
  • Practical implications (second-level heading): Reaffirm the importance of the study by restating its main contributions and provide the implications for the practical implementation your research.
  • Limitations of the study (second-level heading): Point out the possible limitations of the study and provide suggestions for future research.
  • Recommendations (second-level heading): Provide the recommendations emerging out of the current research.

Conclusion (first-level heading):

This should state clearly the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of their importance and relevance, with a recommendation for future research (implications for practice). Provide a brief conclusion that restates the objectives, the research design and the results with their meaning.

Acknowledgements (first-level heading):

If, through your study, you received any significant help in conceiving, designing or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favour by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Authors should always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts and any sources of funding that supported the research.

  • Competing interests (second-level heading): A competing interest exists when your interpretation of data or presentation of information may be influenced by your personal or financial relationship with other people or organisations that can potentially prevent you from executing and publishing unbiased research. Authors should disclose any financial competing interests, but also any non-financial competing interests that may cause them embarrassment were they to become public after the publication of the manuscript.

Where an author gives no competing interests, the listing will read:

‘The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.’

  • Authors’ contributions (second-level heading): This section is necessary to give appropriate credit to each author, and to the authors’ applicable institution/s. The individual contributions of authors should be specified with their affiliation at the time of the study and completion of the work. An ‘author’ is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. Contributions made by each of the authors listed, can follow the example below (please note the use of author initials):

J.K. (University of Pretoria) was the project leader, L.M.N. (University of KwaZulu-Natal) and A.B. (Stellenbosch University) were responsible for experimental and project design. L.M.N. performed most of the experiments. P.R. (Cape Peninsula University of Technology) made conceptual contributions and S.T. (University of Cape Town), U.V. (University of Cape Town) and C.D. (University of Cape Town) performed some of the experiments. S.M. (Cape Peninsula University of Technology) and V.C. (Cape Peninsula University of Technology) prepared the samples and calculations were performed by C.S. (Cape Peninsula University of Technology).

References (first-level heading):

Begin the reference list on a separate page with no more than 60 references for full length articles and 30 references for short notes. The Bothalia – African Biodiversity & Conservation Journal uses the Harvard referencing style. Note: no other style will be permitted.

If you use any reference editor to add citations in the text, remove all data fields and replace with normal text before submission

For journal articles, provide DOIs for as many as possible (usually all papers published in or after 2000). The DOI reference can be provided after a comma at the end of each reference.


Taxonomic publications

Bothalia – African Biodiversity & Conservation publishes taxonomic findings where these align with the scope and focus of the journal (see Scope and Focus of Bothalia – African Biodiversity & Conservation). For such works the following headings should be used:

The Abstract and Introduction must follow the guidelines for full length articles, as described above.

Research method and materials (first-level heading):

  • Materials (second-level heading): Briefly explain from which institutions material was studied, and whether any fresh material was collected as part of the study. If field collecting did take place explain where this was carried out, over what time period and how samples were collected.
  • Procedure (second-level heading): Explain how observations, measurements and illustrations were done, and what equipment was used.

Taxonomic treatments (first-level heading):

This section serves as a guide to understand and standardise the presentation of taxonomy in research articles and short communications.

More details of rules that must be adhered to can be obtained from:

  • The International Plant Names Index at
  • International Association for Plant Taxonomy at
  • The International Commission for Zoological Nomenclature (

The following sequence and format must be followed for taxonomic treatments in Bothalia – African Biodiversity & Conservation:

Species treatments:

  • Basionym (the first name validly published, which has priority over other names later given to the same species): Name (bold, not italicised), author citation (italicised), author/s of paper in which basionym stated (if different from original author, not italicised).
  • Name of the journal/publication written out in full (not italicised), volume: page number/range (date of publication), fig/s.
  • Type locality: COUNTRY (upper case), as provided in the original description. Type specimen/s: date of collection, collector (italicised), collector number (italicised) (where available), institution code (using global acronym), catalogue number (where available), status (holotype, isotype/syntype, lectotype). If specimen was examined, this is indicated by a ‘!’ after the specimen status.
  • Additional references, in chronological order, with author: page (year of publication), figure number/s reflected (e.g. Boris et al.: 14 (1966); Boris: 89 (1967), fig. 9.).
  • List of synonyms in chronological order, arranged in groups of nomenclatural synonyms (i.e. homotypic synonyms (based on the same type), followed by heterotypic synonyms (based on a different type), arranged chronologically), with references cited as author, page (year of publication), and figure number/s listed in chronological order.
  • Identification of illegitimate names in the nomenclatural component must be accompanied by an appropriate indication of the reason for their illegitimacy. The type details for each heterotypic synonym should be included (institution code followed by catalogue number where available and type status), and those specimens examined by the author/s must be indicated by an exclamation mark. The full reference for citations must be included in the Reference List.


  1. Eremiolirion amboense (Schinz) C.Manning & C.A.Mannheimer in Bothalia 35: 117 (2005), fig. 4. Type: South West Africa [NAMIBIA], Amboland [Ovamboland], Ongangua [Ondongwa], without date, Ruatanen 344 (Z.holo!).
  2. Walleria gracilis () S.Carter in Kew Bulletin 16: 189 (1962). Androsyne gracilis Salsb.: 61 (1866). Type: SOUTH AFRICA, Western Cape, William Marsden [BM, holo!; drawing in Salisbury mss.8: 818 (BM)].
    1. armata Scltr. & K.Krause in Krause: 235 (1921). Type: SOUTH AFRICA, [Western Cape, near Klawer], [Farm] Windhoek, 8 July 1896, R. Schlechter 8074 (B, holo [not seen]; BM!, BR!, COI!, GRA!, K, MO!, PRE!, S!. iso).
  3. Plagiotaphrus improvisus (Attems 1934) Hoffman in Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 83 (3–4): 209 (1971), fig. 2. Megaskamma improvisa: Attems: 16: 13 (1934), figs 14–17. Type: ANGOLA, near Cuanza River, Biėi District, Jan. 1932, Haas (SMF 1694, holo. [not seen] 1 male).
  • Lectotypes or neotypes should be chosen for correct names without a holotype. It is not necessary to lectotypify synonyms. When a lectotype or neotype is newly chosen, this should be indicated by using the phrase “here designated”. If reference is made to a previously selected lectotype or neotype, the name of the designating author and the literature reference should be given. In cases where no type was cited, and none has subsequently been nominated, this may be stated as “not designated”.

Description of new taxa:

  • All newly described taxa and newly proposed synonyms and new combinations should be explicitly designated as such, e.g. fam. nov., trib. nov., gen. nov., sp. nov., nom. nudem., syn. nov., comb. nov.

Name (bold, not italicised) sp. nov. authority (if different to the authors of the manuscript)

TYPE/S: (holotype followed by paratype/s) (COUNTRY (upper case), province (bold), locality as given by original collector (if in foreign language or using archaic or outdated place names then these must be placed in inverted commas, with modern equivalent of collecting locality in square brackets (if relevant)), geographic co-ordinates (if the geographic co-ordinates were not provided on the specimen label or provided by the collector, and were identified by the author using a gazetteer or Google Earth, this must be indicated by including the co-ordinates in square brackets, altitude, habitat or other available, relevant collecting details, date of collection, collector’s name (italicised), collector’s number (italicised) (if available), (institution where specimen is housed (using global acronyms for these), catalogue number (if available), number of specimens by male and female (where relevant)).


  1. Lasiosiphon rigidusC.Manning & Boatwr., sp. nov.
    TYPES: SOUTH AFRICA, Northern Cape, Tankwa [Tangua] Karoo National Park, SW foot of Leeuberg, along drainage lines, [32°18,2’S / 20°0.3’E, 414 masl], 20 Jun. 2012, Manning 3363 (NBG, holo., MO, PRE, iso).
  2. Doratogonus microsetus nov.
    TYPES: SOUTH AFRICA, Mpumalanga: Wakkerstroom, 27.36670°S / 30.01670° E, 20 Dec, 2000, D. Forbes (NMSA 21786, 1 male holo.; NMSA 21787, 2 males, 1 females, para.).

Second-level headings for taxonomic treatments:

  • Description (with third-level headings if required, and according to diagnostic characters for the particular taxon)
  • Distribution and habitat
  • Ecology
  • Etymology
  • Local name/s
  • Uses / economic value
  • Diagnosis and relationships
  • Conservation status – comment on whether included in existing Red Lists, or whether the species would potentially qualify as threatened and describe current and potential threats.
  • Other material examined (country (upper case), province (bold): locality as given by original collector, modern equivalent of collecting locality in square brackets (if relevant), co-ordinates (degrees, minutes decimal) (in square brackets if gazetteer or Google Earth used by author), approximate altitude, date of collection, collector’s name (italics), collector’s number (italics) (if available) (institution where specimen is housed (using international acronym or code for these), catalogue number (if available), number of specimens by male and female (where relevant)).
  • List of specimens must be arranged alphabetically by country, and within countries, by province in alphabetical order, and within provinces, alphabetically by locality name, and as far as possible keeping those specimens from the same locality together, then in chronological order by collection date.
  • Herbarium acronyms follow Index Herbariorum [Thiers, B. [continuously updated]. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium.]. The accepted acronyms for other institutions can be obtained from the Global Registry of Biorepositories (GRBio) (
  • Original locality information in a foreign language or using archaic/outdated place names should be indicated using inverted comas, with any relevant corrections for modern usage, including conversions to metric units, added in square brackets.
  • The date of collection is to be presented as day, month of the year (abbreviated as Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, Jun., Jul., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.), and year in full.
  • Geographic co-ordinates must be presented as taken from a GPS, or from an online gazetteer or georeferencer in degrees, decimal minutes (DDM). Records must also indicate the hemisphere (E or W and N or S, and the estimated/approximate altitude. If the geographic co-ordinates and approximate altitude were not provided on the specimen label or provided by the collector, and were identified by the author, this must be indicated by including the co-ordinates in square brackets.
  • For species that may be threatened by over-collecting, the co-ordinates can be degraded to reflect only the degrees and minutes. In the case of old specimens where the exact locality is unknown the degree and minutes or equivalent, or the degree or quarter degree grid square can be provided.


  1. SOUTH AFRICA. Western Cape: Near Eendekuil, western foot of Piekenierskloof Pass, [32°37.136’S / 18°57.525’E 476masl], 28 Aug. 2009, Magee, Boatwright, Manning and Goldblatt 161 (NBG, PRE, K, BOL); roadside near Gouda, [33°37.136’S / 19°2.044’E, 85masl], 09 Sept. 1951, Esterhuysen 18840 (BOL [3 sheets], K, PRE).Tulbagh, 33°17.126’S / 19°8.257”E, 162masl, Sept. 1919, Bolus 16734 (BOL);
  2. SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Nkandhla Forest, in forest along dirt road, 28º43’38.592”S / 31º07’58.281”E, 1121 masl, 19 Nov, 2001, Armstrong & H. Murray (NMSA 21970 [1 male, 1 female]).

Language for these sections must be as concise as possible, using principles instead of verbs.

The remaining first-level headings (Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, Competing interests, Authors’ contributions and References) must follow the same format as for full length articles, as detailed above.

Images – low resolution version in the text file; high resolution files – correctly labelled – as separate JPG, TIF or EPS files.

Identification keys: Dichotomous keys must use sequential numbering, with the two parts of the couplet numbered 1a, b; 2a, b etc. New species included in keys must be bolded and not italicised, and sp. nov. must be stated, while other species names must not be bolded, must be italicised, and must include the species authority in the correct format.

Illustrations for taxonomic works: Descriptions of new plant species should include a photograph of the holotype specimen, unless there is a good reason for not providing this. For all taxa, descriptions of new species and taxonomic revisions should include annotated illustrations that clearly show and indicate diagnostic characters.

Nomenclatural changes

Bothalia – African Biodiversity & Conservation will accept notes on nomenclatural changes. Authors are encouraged to include all name changes into a single manuscript and not to split these into separate manuscripts. Note the SA Plant Checklist Committee serve as Nomenclatural Editors for manuscripts submitted to Bothalia, African Biodiversity & Conservation, that deal with nomenclatural changes . 

Range extensions / new distribution records

Bothalia – African Biodiversity & Conservation will accept new distribution records where these have an impact on the conservation status of a species, or they represent a new country record. Single new distribution records will only be considered for publication where these are of major significance, and authors are encouraged to compile all new distribution records into a single manuscript and not to split these into several papers.

Original research, Reviews, Strategies, Case studies

Full length articles report on complete, comprehensive pieces of original research, as well as reviews, strategies or innovative case studies in any field of work aligned with the scope of the journal

Short Communications

Short communications are concise reports on narrow investigations. These include new species descriptions.

News, book reviews and commentaries

Bothalia, African Biodiversity & Conservation will publish short newsworthy artcicles that highlight important conference or symposium outcomes, or that bring attention to or comment on new policies or legislation of relevance to biodiversity and its conservation in Africa. Short book reviews will also be published. 

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